Essays Outlines

Essay Outline and Intro: Corruption in Pakistan

Corruption Essay Outlines
Shahzad F. Malik
Written by Shahzad F. Malik

Corruption in Pakistan is on the decline, as Transparency International Berlin released its annual global report 2015 showing Pakistan further improving its ranking from the 50th most corrupt country in 2014 to 53rd in 2015. The political will of the government to fight corruption is lacking which has resulted in the Supreme Court of Pakistan to take suo-moto action against mega corruption in NlCL, Pakistan Steel, Rental Power Plants. The CPI 2010 reveals that corruption in Pakistan is increasing, while in Bangladesh it is decreasing. Bangladesh was perceived to be the most corrupt country in 2001, 2002 and 2003 and its ranking in 2010 is the 39th most corrupt country. Reduced corruption has paid dividends to Bangladesh whose annual GDP growth last year was over 5%, while Pakistan’s GDP growth last year was near 2.4 %. Delay in formation of an Independent Accountability Commission by the parliament may further aggravate the situation.

The word “Corruption” has its origin in a Latin verb “corruptus” meaning “to break”. Literally, it means “a broken object”. In simple words, corruption means “the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit.” Conceptually, corruption is a form of behaviour which departs from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtue. The term corruption has various definitions. The United Nations Manual on Anti-Corruption, the Transparency International, and the multilateral financial institutions like the World Bank and Asian Development Bank define corruption as, “abuse of public office for private gains” The National Anti Corruption Strategy (NACS) has defined corruption as “a behaviour on the part of office holders in the public or private sector whereby they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves and/or those close to them, or induce others to do so, by misusing the position in which they are placed.”

Section 9 of the National Accountability Ordinance 1999 has defined corruption and corrupt practices in a comprehensive manner. It has enlisted about twelve different shades of corruption. Illegal gratifications, bribery, extortion, abuse of office, fraud, cheating and criminal breach of trust are some of the corrupt practices mentioned in the NAO 1999 (Annex A). Starting with the Prevention of Corruption Act 1947, there are about sixty pieces of enactments and rules that deal with offences of corruption and corrupt practices in Pakistan (Annex B). The most comprehensive definition of “corruption” can be found at the web site of the Global Infrastructure Anti Corruption Center (GIACC) http://www.giaccentre.org. It says “In its wider sense, corruption includes one or more of bribery, extortion, fraud, deception, collusion, cartels, abuse of power, embezzlement, trading in influence and money laundering.”


Essay Outline: Corruption in Pakistan

  • Definition of corruption
  • Essential components of corruption
  • Causes
    • Lack of accountability
    • Absence of rule of law
    • Low salaries
    • Lack of independence of judiciary
    • Weak political institutions
    • Political collusion with top management of a department
    • Denial of basic facility of life
    • Bad governance due to corruption
  • Findings of National Anti-Corruption Strategy
  • Examples of corruption
  • Effects of corruption
  • Steps to curb corruption
    • Increase salaries of the government employees
    • Speedy judicial justice
    • Role of NAB
    • Police reforms
    • Judiciary and legal profession
    • Access to justice programme
    • Accountability courts
    • Public sector financial management
    • Financial oversight bodies
    • Independent Anti-Corruption Agencies
    • Local government
    • Freedom of Information and Media
  • Conclusion

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Shahzad F. Malik

Shahzad F. Malik

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