World General Knowledge

Famous Doctrines of the World

Famous Doctrines of the World
Written by Shahzad F. Malik

Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine, expressed in 1823, proclaimed the United States’ opinion that European powers should no longer colonize the Americas or interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations located in the Americas, such as the United States, Mexico, Gran Colombia and others. The doctrine was issued by President James Monroe during this seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress.


Harmon Doctrine

Judson Harmon was an attorney, judge, and two-time Ohio governor with presidential aspirations. Harmon said, “The rules, principles and precedents of International Law imposed no liability or obligation on the United States” According to Harmon, nations had exclusive jurisdiction and control over the uses of all waters within their boundaries.


Flexible Response

A doctrine of containment that provided for a variety of military and political strategies that the president could use to stem the spread of Communism is known as flexible response plan. The flexible response plan was developed by Defense and State Department officials in the Kennedy administration who felt that Eisenhower’s “massive retaliation” doctrine restricted the president’s options too much.


Anschluss

Anschluss is a Chancellor Adolf Hitler’s doctrine of German political union with Austria, which effectively enabled Germany to annex that nation in March 1938.


Massive Retaliation

A primary component of Dwight D. Eisenhower’s New Look foreign policy that threatened massive nuclear retaliation against the Soviet Union for any Communist aggression abroad. Designed to save the U.S. government money on defense spending, this policy effectively tied Eisenhower’s hands because it limited his options when addressing smaller crises, such as the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Kennedy later dropped the threat of massive retaliation in favor of the doctrine of “flexible response,” which gave the president more options.


Truman Doctrine

A doctrine articulated by President Harry S Truman that pledged American support for all “free peoples” fighting Communist aggression from foreign or domestic sources. Truman announced the doctrine in 1947. He convinced Congress to grant Greece and Turkey $400 million to help fight pro-Soviet insurgents. In President Harry S Truman’s words, it became “the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”.


Tobar Doctrine

A political principle in the Americas, enunciated in 1907 by C. R. Tobar, the minister of foreign affairs of Ecuador, proscribing the extension of recognition to any government that accedes to power by other than constitutional means. Tobar proposed that the American states sign an agreement allowing for intervention in the internal affairs of Latin American countries with such a government.


Eisenhower Doctrine

The Eisenhower Doctrine was announced by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957. Under the Eisenhower Doctrine, a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state.


Kennedy Doctrine

The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office. Kennedy voiced support for the containment of Communism and the reversal of Communist progress in the Western Hemisphere.


Carter Doctrine

The Carter Doctrine was a policy proclaimed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on January 23, 1980, which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf region


Reagan Doctrine

The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. It was created partially in response to the Brezhnev Doctrine and was a centerpiece of American foreign policy from the mid-1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1991.


Brezhnev Doctrine

The Brezhnev Doctrine was a policy promoted by Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. It said that the Soviet Union had the right to use military force to maintain the strict rule of the Communist Party in nearby socialist countries.


Nixon Doctrine

The Nixon Doctrine (also known as the Guam Doctrine) was put forth during a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by US President Richard Nixon and later formalized in his speech on Vietnamization on November 3, 1969. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies.


Big stick ideology

Big stick ideology, big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy: “speak softly, and carry a big stick.” Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as “the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis.


Peaceful Co existence

Khrushchev (USSR) solidified the concept in Soviet foreign policy in 1956 at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The policy arose as a temptation to reduce hostility between the two superpowers. The Soviet theory of peaceful coexistence asserted that the United States and USSR, and their respective political ideologies, could coexist rather than fighting one another, and Khrushchev tried to demonstrate his commitment to peaceful coexistence by attending international peace conferences, such as the Geneva Summit, and his trip to America’s Camp David in 1959.


Domino Theory

The belief that if the United States allowed one country to fall to Communism, then many more would follow suit, like a row of dominoes. Many foreign policy thinkers subscribed to this theory at the height of the Cold War, and this led the United States to support anti-Communist regimes throughout the world, whether or not they upheld democratic ideals. The domino theory also provided the primary rationale behind Lyndon Johnson’s massive escalation of the conflict in Vietnam to full-scale war.


Lebensraum

Literally meaning “living space,” Adolf Hitler’s justification for Germany’s aggressive territorial conquests in the late 1930s. Based on the work of a previous German ethnographer, Hitler used the idea of lebensraum to claim that the German people’s “natural” territory extended beyond the current borders of Germany and that Germany therefore needed to acquire additional territory in Europe.


Estrad Doctrine

Estrad Doctrine (Estrade F.M. of Mexico) was announced in 1930.


Drago Doctrine

Drago Doctrine was announced in 1902.


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Shahzad F. Malik

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