Which of the following is least likely to be directly affected by trends in globalization?
(a) Sex tourism
(c) Formation of alliances between feminist organizations in different countries
Cas Wouters’s (2004) Sex and Manners is a study of changing gender relations and the in formalization of courtship codes. Where is his research data primarily drawn from?
(a) Interview material
(b) Oral histories
(c) Manners books
(d) Survey research
Which of the following does not constitute ‘sex work’?
(a) Lap dancing
(b) Erotic massage
(d) Belly dancing
Which theoretical approach questions the very existence of identity categories, seeing these, rather, as products of specific discourses?
(a) Queer theory
R.W. Connell’s theory of the gender hierarchy identifies many expressions of femininity and masculinity. Which one sits at the top of the hierarchy?
(a) Complicit masculinity
(b) Emphasized femininity
(c) Emphasized femininity
(d) Hegemonic masculinity
Which feminist perspective has patriarchy as its fundamental concept in the explanation of gender inequality?
(a) Liberal feminism
(b) Radical feminism
(c) Socialist feminism
(d) Marxist feminism
Which of the following is not one of the six structures of patriarchy identified by Sylvia Walby (1990)?
(a) Paid employment
(b) Male violence
(c) Household production relations
(d) Political parties
Which form of feminism is most closely associated with intersectionality?
(a) Postmodern feminism
(b) Black feminism
(c) Radical feminism
(d) Socialist feminism
What is the central premise of strict social constructionist theories in gender studies?
(a) Biological sex must be separated from gender
(b) Learned gender roles overlay biological sex
(c) Both sex and gender are social constructions
(d) a biological basis exists for both sex and gender
Ken Plummer has identified four types of homosexuality in modern Western culture. Which one refers to settings where men engage in same-sex activity only as a substitute for heterosexual behaviour?
(a) Casual homosexuality
(b) Situated homosexuality
(c) Personalized homosexuality
(d) Homosexuality as a way of life
The Stonewall Riots were a significant event in:
(a) The women’s liberation movement
(b) The ‘pro-life’ movement
(c) The gay rights movement
(d) The reproductive rights movement
Sociologists use the term ‘sex’ to refer to:
(a) Anatomical and physiological difference
(b) Erotic and physical practices
(c) Psychological and social difference
(d) Emotional and cultural practices
Which one of these is not one of the three ‘crisis tendencies’ in the gender order identified by Connell?
(a) Crisis of institutionalization
(b) Crisis of sexuality
(c) Crisis of masculinity
(d) Crisis of interest formation
According to Parsons’ functionalist approach, the sexual division of labour in the family should ensure that women occupy which role?
Which form of feminism draws on Marxist theory?
The ‘double standard’ normally refers to the difference in social attitudes towards:
(a) Homosexual and heterosexual sex activity
(b) Child and adult sexual activity
(c) Male and female sexual activity
(d) Working-class and middle-class sexual activity
Transvestism requires a change of:
(a) Sexual orientation
(b) Gender identity
In which century was the term ‘homosexual’ coined to describe a distinct type of person?
Queer Theory makes the claim that:
(a) heterosexuality is the normal and most desirable way to be
(b) the sexual categories and discourses we use are based upon true, underlying biological differences
(c) deviant forms of masculinity are seen as more threatening to the gender order than deviant forms of femininity
(d) all sexualities are pluralistic, fragmented and frequently reconstructed
A hierarchical system in which cultural, political, and economic structures are dominated by males is a(n) ______________.
(b) Gendered division of labour
(c) Pluralist model
(d) Elite model
According to the text, the terms masculinity and femininity are most closely linked to _______
Gender roles refer to:
(a) Chromosomal and hormonal differences that cause inevitable differences in the behaviour of men and women.
(b) The rights, responsibilities, expectations, and relationships of women and men.
(c) The subordination of women based on the assumption of superiority of men.
(d) None of the above.
Men currently outnumber women in ________ programs.
(a) Allied health field
Which of the following terms refers to individuals’ beliefs and actions that are rooted in anti-female prejudice and stereotypic beliefs?
(a) Gender socialization
(b) Gender segregation
(c) Individual sexism
(d) Institutionalized sexism
Women are over-represented in __________ work because it often provides greater flexibility to meet family responsibilities.
(a) Private sector
(c) Public sector
Linguistic sexism is a problem studied primarily by analysts using a(n) ___________ perspective.
The ____________ perspective combines the exploitation of women by capitalism with patriarchy in the home in its analysis of gender inequality.
(a) Radical feminist
(b) Democratic feminist
(c) Socialist feminist
(d) Liberal feminist
Which form of feminism is most committed to challenging the essentialist nature of the category ‘woman’?