CSS Notes Pakistan Affairs

Political Instability in Pakistan: Issues, Challenges, and Way forward

Political Instability in Pakistan Issues, Challenges, and Way forward
Written by Anam Saba

The following article is written by Anam Saba, a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali. Moreover, the article is written on the same pattern, taught by Sir Kazim to his students, scoring the highest marks in compulsory subjects for years. Therefore, to help thousands of CSS and PMS aspirants, we have uploaded this article so they can understand how to crack a topic or a question, how to write relevantly, what coherence is, and how to include and connect ideas, opinions, and suggestions to score the maximum.

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 Nothing hurts the world socially, economically, politically, and technologically the way political instability does. It not only hinders economic progress but also distorts the social fabric of a nation. Political stability is indispensable for the prosperity of a nation. Progressive political reforms ensure stability, peace and a thriving human culture. Political stability is the backbone of a nation. It is a fact that the reason for a country’s progress is not its economy; however, it is the political leadership that makes a country prosper and succeed. In the present world, only those countries lag socially, politically and economically, which neglects the importance of prudent political leadership. As a matter of fact, unlike many other developing countries, the economic growth in Pakistan has remained stagnant. Despite having the world’s best canal system, profitable geo-strategic location, and a lot of unexplored natural resources, the leadership has failed to deliver. Pakistan has experienced rising poverty and a shrinking economy for various political leadership reasons, such as fragmented leadership, inefficient political parties, and dysfunction of the federal system. Consequently, the country has faced multiple challenges of a lingering economy, lowering foreign direct investment, and rising inflation. Through the collaborated efforts of government, opposition, public parts and political will, soon Pakistan will surely make its way to the heights of development and prosperity.

“There is no stability without solidarity and no solidarity without stability.”

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 Currently, the politicians are more interested in blame games, with the opposition, instead of introducing some unique and good strategies to improve the governance structure in Pakistan. Shortly, the power lust of politicians overpowered the country’s national interest. Nonetheless, collaborated efforts on government, opposition, and public parts are imperative to root out all undemocratic traits to make the country’s political culture consensual.


There are many factors calling forth the political instability in Pakistan, but some prominent causes are given here.

First, national disintegration is the fundamental one in this regard. In Pakistan, a multi-ethnic society, political instability is more severe due to people of diverse cultural attributes. Additionally, being a part of a multi-ethnic society, all sections of society do not get their due shares and are unsatisfied and powerless, lose their trust in institutions, and they prefer their interests in front of the state, and ultimately society leads to a split.

Second, political instability in the context of the identity and legitimacy crisis in Pakistan has escalated mainly due to the effects of increasing socio-political mobilization and the extravagant and disorganized role of civil and military bureaucracy, which has prejudiced the whole political order of the country. Moreover, due to the splitting of the institutions of leadership into the levels of ethnic, religious, and provincial, the legitimacy and identity crisis started and, by the passage of time, gained momentum, and the theme of national leadership was lost in these various leadership levels. Consequently, the fragmentation in the administration gave birth to the crisis of identity and legitimacy and aggravated it daily.

Third, the inefficient role and weak political organization of political parties in Pakistan are also major contributing factors to the political instability in the country. Moreover, this vulnerable organization and inefficiency of the political parties pave the way for a coalition of governments. Thus, each government exerts their whole energy to maintain the coalition setup and remains under continuous pressure from its partners. In this way, it affects policy-making in both internal and external arenas and hinders the successful implementation of domestic and foreign policy, which requires strong support from people. Resultantly, the inefficiency of political parties does not provide a platform; instead, they split and exploit public opinion for their interest. Moreover, due to a lack of education, people do not have any clear choice among the same parties, and they cannot use their political rights; therefore, they do not depend on old parties and make a party of their own.

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Last but not least, the dysfunction of the federal system is also a significant factor that worsened the political instability in the country. Moreover, due to faults in the maintenance of the federal system, the people of various cultures exerted to obtain a separate homeland where they could live according to their cultural norms and prosper.

“The murder of Pakistan’s first prime minister heralded the imminent derailment of the political process and the onset of a brutal political culture of assassinations, sustained by the state’s direct or indirect complicity.” Ayesha Jalal


Following are the major challenges, highlighting the severity of political instability in Pakistan.

It is a fact that political stability and economic growth are closely interlinked. On the one hand, political instability may decrease investment, ultimately slowing economic development. On the other hand, a financial crisis may lead to political unrest and government failure or downfall. In addition, political instability also discourages foreign direct investment because social unrest and political turmoil discourage investors, which decreases economic growth.

Moreover, political instability also flourishes corruption. It causes uncertainty in the country, weakens the institutions, and weak institutions are a crucial factor in enabling corruption due to low checks and balances on institutions. Moreover, if a country is politically unstable, the short-term decision-making increases the likelihood of corruption.

Furthermore, political instability is prevailing mistrust in society because it splits society on various grounds. Due to the dissatisfaction of all sections of society with the actions of governments, the situation of mistrust prevails and escalates daily. Consequently, personal interests overcome national interests, making the country more vulnerable to internal and external negative forces.

Last but not least, rising inflation and unemployment is also undesirable and detrimental to the country’s political instability, creating social unrest and uncertainty among the masses. This unrest may lead to violence against government policies. Likewise, the reduction in investments decreases economic growth. As a result, the weak government fulfils the demand for public expenditure through inflation taxes.

“My biggest challenge is how we can improve state institutions and governance, so we can tap our potential.” Imran Khan

Way forwards

The following measures may enhance political stability in Pakistan. To enhance the quality and stability of political system in Pakistan, quality education is a crucial factor that helps the effective implementation of the national policy on education by adequate provision of resources. Moreover, sincere and patriotic leadership is necessary to improve the political stability in the country because sincere leadership provides all basic requirements to their citizens. Furthermore, the state’s prosperity, stability, and economy are interlinked with the strength of the political system. So, a stable political system is a cure for all possible challenges that arise from political instability. In addition, the solution to political instability can be achieved by solving the institutions’ legitimacy and the ruler’s personal legitimacy. Lastly, building trust among provinces is also essential to overcome the instability issue in the country. In this regard, political parties should adopt a positive approach to the national interest.

Critical Analysis

To analyze critically, political instability has become a severe problem in developing countries, especially in Pakistan. It is disturbing the social fabric of the nation and delaying its development. Political instability hinders keeping society united and maintaining legitimacy within the state. The imposing tower of the issue, which today rests in the heart of Pakistan, has its sole foundation in the absence of a stable political system. In a nutshell, there is a dire need for solid determination and political will to strengthen the political system.


In a nutshell, the prevalent political instability issue in Pakistan has eroded the socio-economic fabric, leaving the country into social, political, and economic turmoil. It gives a death blow to Pakistan’s economy. Although the suggested measures cannot bring change overnight, the challenge must be accepted. Progress will likely be frustratingly slow, but these steps will ensure accelerated and visible improvement if appropriately executed.

“Pakistan’s future viability, stability and security lie in empowering its people and building political institutions. My goal is to prove that the fundamental battle for the hearts and minds of a generation can be accomplished only under democracy.” Benazir Bhutto

About The Author

Anam Saba is a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali.. She is Pakistan’s youngest blogger, reviewer, and writer. She loves writing reviews, blogs, and articles on various topics: current affairs, technology, everyday science, history, clothing, and entertainment. Moreover, she writes honest reviews about different clothing brands. Due to her unique writing style, she has been followed by thousands of youngsters in Pakistan. Additionally, she helps competitive aspirants in their studies and exam preparation. Apart from this, she has been engaged in writing articles and blogs on various topics to help her readers always know the best.

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 CSS & PMS Solved Questions Attempted by Sir Syed Kazim Ali’s Students

The following are the some solved questions attempted by Sir Kazim Ali’s students who scored the highest marks in compulsory subjects. Click on any to land Cssprepforum, Pakistan’s largest CSS and PMS exams preparatory website, and start learning. All the questions have their breakdowns, outlines, and solutions.

  1. Critically examine the Congress Ministries of 1937. How far is it correct to suggest that it paved the way for a separate Muslim homeland in India? (CSS 2019)
  2. Discuss the features of the political culture of Pakistan. (CSS 2020)
  3. Discuss the Significance of Renewable Energy Resources for Pakistan. (CSS 2021)
  4. How the reform movement of Sheikh Ahmed Sirhindi influenced the history of Muslim India? (CSS 2020)
  5. The Objectives Resolution (1949) satisfied both orthodox and modernists by combining the features of western and Islamic democracy. (CSS 2020)
  6. How Did The Reform Movement Of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi Influence The History Of Muslim India?
  7. How Pakistan should combat the 5th generation war? (CSS 2021)
  8. Write A Comprehensive Note On Unemployment In Pakistan And Its Social, Political, And Economic Impacts (CSS 2020)
  9. What Were The Aims And Objectives Behind The Creation Of Pakistan?
  10. How Far The Nature Of The Center Province Relation Has Changed Under Various Constitutional Amendments? Evaluate (CSS 2019)
  11. Write A Note On Two Nation Theory And The Lahore Resolution Of March 1940 (CSS 2016)
  12. What Are The Main Causes Of Energy Crisis In Pakistan? What Measures Do You Suggest To Address It? (CSS 2020)
  13. What Were The Effects Of Reforms Of Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi On Muslim Society?

About the author

Anam Saba

Anam Saba is a student of Sir Syed Kazim Ali.. She is Pakistan’s youngest blogger, reviewer, and writer. She loves writing reviews, blogs, and articles on various topics: current affairs, technology, everyday science, history, clothing, and entertainment. Moreover, she writes honest reviews about different clothing brands. Due to her unique writing style, she has been followed by thousands of youngsters in Pakistan. Additionally, she helps competitive aspirants in their studies and exam preparation. Apart from this, she has been engaged in writing articles and blogs on various topics to help her readers always know the best.

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