Electricity is one of major source of power in Pakistan due to improper use of coal and oil resources.
Nature has provided suitable environment in Pakistan. To produce hydroelectricity environment is better for it. The northern and north western area of Pakistan is suitable for building of dams. We can produce hydroelectricity to create steep slopes in rivers and canals. Its best example is the Ghazi Barotha project in river Indus. Both public and private sectors have planned to increase the production of hydroelectricity in Pakistan. Pakistan’s total hydroelectricity production is 4963 Megawatt. Pakistan has the capacity of production of 30000 MW from its river Indus, Jhelum and Chenab.
Important Hydroelectricity Stations:
There are three hydroelectricity stations working in Pakistan:
1. Tarbela Dam:
This dam is situated on Indus River. The Tarbela dam produces 70% of the total hydroelectricity production of Pakistan. Its installed generation capacity is 3478 MW. The Tarbela Dam was constructed in 1976 and its cost was about Rs.18 billion. This dam is about 9000 feet long. The Tarbela is one of the biggest dams of the world.
2. Mangla Dam:
This dam is located on Jhelum River. This dam installed generation capacity of power is 1000 MW which is 20% of total hydroelectricity of the country. This dam was constructed and completed in 1967 the height of this dam is 110 meters. This dam is made of concrete. This is second biggest dam in Pakistan.
The Thermal power stations are generating electricity by gas, oil and coal in Pakistan. The 49.8% of the total electricity is produced by the thermal power. The thermal power production is 4921 MW in Pakistan. There are 13 thermal power stations working in Pakistan. The biggest station is working in Karachi this station generates 1756 MW. The second biggest station is working in Multan. It generates 260 MW.
Important Thermal Stations:
Other important thermal plants are in Faisalabad, Kotri, Pasni, Guddu, Jamshoro, Muzaffargarh, Sukkur and Larkana, etc.
A large number of projects have been planned to meet future energy requirements of Pakistan. This project is working rapidly. If this project works better than our country will make progress by leaps and bounds.
The energy that we get from sun is called solar energy. The climate of Pakistan is extremely hot and dry. Pakistan is situated near the Tropic of cancer so the sun rays are vertical most of the year. These days are hot. That’s why the season of summer is longer than winter in Pakistan. The sun rises most time. We can use this energy to the maximum in life. This is the cheapest source of energy.
Use of Solar Energy:
We have abundance of this energy but important thing is the maximum use of it. This energy is used to operate small machines and motor in future the solar energy will become the biggest source of energy of the world because other sources are costly and difficult to exploit.
1. Atomic Energy:
Atomic energy is the advance source of this world. Although this source of energy is very sophisticated and multi-disciplinary system. As the rapid growth of population sources are also increasing at the same rate. That’s why it is an important source of energy in developing countries.
2. Pakistan is an Atomic Power:
By the grace of Allah Pakistan has become a great Atomic Power. Pakistan has operated Atomic blasts in Chagi in Balochistan on 28 May 1998. Pakistan had to face many difficulties to achieve progress in the atomic program.
3. Nuclear Power Technology:
Nuclear Power technology was introduced in Pakistan in 1971 when a plant of 136 MW capacity namely Karachi. Nuclear power plant (KANUPP) was installed. This plant has been operating safely for more than 31 years. IN other important Cheshma two nuclear power projects are also working with the help of China on Indus River, each with capacity of 325 MW.
As per World Health Organization (WHO) report 80 percent of the diseases are due to unhygienic conditions and unsafe drinking water. Safe drinking water and proper sanitation are inseparable and critical to health.
According to UNICEF and WHO estimates, 10 countries are home to almost two-thirds of the global population without access to improved drinking water sources. They are: China (108 million); India (99 million); Nigeria (63 million); Ethiopia (43 million); Indonesia (39 million); Democratic Republic of the Congo (37 million); Bangladesh (26 million); United Republic of Tanzania (22 million); Kenya (16 million) and Pakistan (16 million).
However, access to water remains difficult in Pakistan in Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, parts of Baluchistan, Tharparkar and Cholistan.
By international standards, Pakistan was already a water-scarce country in 1992 at 1700 m3 available per capita. Currently it has 1200 m3 per capita and in 2020 it will have 855 m3 per capita.
IMPORTANCE OF WATER
1. Power Generation:
Water is also essential for power generation in Pakistan, since about 29% is generated through hydropower.
2. Fishing Industry:
The fishing industry plays a role in the national economy of Pakistan. The coastline is 814km and fishery resources still have room to grow. Fishing in Pakistan is a major source of export earnings.
3. Water for Home:
We drink water, cook with it, bathe in it, sprinkle our lawns with it, fill our backyard swimming pools with it – even create theme parks based on it. We need water in our homes, to brush our teeth, cook food and wash dishes.
4. Base for Life:
Without water, there can be no life. In fact, every living thing consists mostly of water. Your body is about two-thirds water. A chicken is about three-fourths water, and a pineapple is about four-fifths water.
5. Water for Agriculture Sector:
Every plant, animal, and human being needs water to stay alive. We need water for irrigation, to raise crops in regions that do not get enough rain. It is estimated that 70% of world-wide water use is for irrigation. In some areas of the world, irrigation is necessary to grow any crop at all, in other areas it permits more profitable crops to be grown or enhances crop yield.
6. Water in living things:
All living things need a lot of water to carry out their life processes. Plants, animals, and human beings must take in nutrients (food substances). If the body loses more than 20 per cent of its normal water content, a person will die painfully. Human beings must take in about 2.4 liters of water a day.
7. Water in our homes:
In our homes, we use far more water than the amount we need simply to stay alive. We require water for cleaning, cooking, bathing, and carrying away wastes. For many people, such water is a luxury. Millions of homes in Asia, Africa, and South America have no running water. The people must haul water up by hand from the village well, or carry it in jars from pools and rivers far from their homes.
8. Waterpower or Hydropower:
Water power, or hydropower, furnishes about 7 percent of the world’s commercial energy. Where water flows from a high place to a lower one, the gravitational energy of the falling water can be captured and used to produce other forms of energy.
9. Water for Industry:
It is estimated that 15% of world-wide water use in industrial. Major industrial users include power plants, which use water for cooling or as a power source (i.e. hydroelectric plants), ore and oil refineries, which use water in chemical processes, and manufacturing plants, which use water as a dissolving something.
Pakistan’s in land water bodies also support a thriving inland fisheries industry. Fish catches vary from place to place, with the largest yields associated with major lakes and dams.
11. Water for Transport/Recreation:
Today, people still depend on water transportation to carry such heavy and bulky products as machinery, coal, grain, and oil. People build most of their recreation areas along lakes, rivers, and seas. They enjoy water sports, such as swimming, fishing, and sailing.
12. Environment and Tourism:
Explicit environmental water use is also a very small but growing percentage of total water use. Environmental water usage includes artificial wetlands, artificial lakes intended to create wildlife habitat, fish ladders around dams, and water releases from reservoirs timed to help fish eggs.