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Irrigation System of Pakistan | CSS Pakistan Affairs Notes

Irrigation System of Pakistan | CSS Pakistan Affairs Notes
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1. Wells or Tube-wells:

It is the oldest method of irrigation in Pakistan. Wells and Tube-wells system is successful where water level is high and where canal system is not common. Animal power and electricity is used for to obtain water from wells and tube-wells. To utilize ground water 0.7 million tube wells have been installed.

2. Canals:

Canal is an artificial waterway constructed for purposes of irrigation, drainage, or navigation, or in connection with a hydroelectric dam. Canal is the thing which brings river water close to the field where it is required to be.

The irrigation system of Pakistan is one of the best one in the world due to the largest irrigation system in the world. In Pakistan, almost 75% of the land which is in agricultural use is covered by the irrigation system. Currently there are 3 large dams and 85 small dams, along with these dams there are 19 barrages to fulfill the water need. From these dams and barrages 12 inter link canals, 45 canals have been taken to provide water to the fields.

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3. Perennial Canals:

These canals supply water throughout the year. Perennial canals are the canals that are used to supply water to the field and these are taken either from dams or barrages. Important Perennial Canals of Punjab are Upper Bari Doab, Lower Bari Doab, Sidhnai Canals, Upper and Lower Chenab, Upper Jhelum canals originating from Trimmu Headworks and Canals originating from river Sutlej at Ferozpur, Islam, Suleimanki and Panjnad Headworks.

4. Non-Perennial Canals:

These canals run during the summer and the rainy season. Sidhnai canals from the Ravi, Haveli canals from the Chenab and some of the Sutlej canals fall in this category.

Check Also: CSS Pakistan Affairs Notes | Natural Resources of Pakistan

5. Inundation Canals (Flood Canals):

These canals run only during the rainy season when water level in river rises. The quantity of water they supply is uncertain. These canals, like other canals, are taken from the rivers but the difference is that they get water when there is a rise in the water level due to flood. Many old canals from the Indus and the Chenab fall in this category.

6. Link Canals:

Link canals are those canals which creates link between one rivers to another river to fulfill the shortage of water. There are a number of link canals constructed under Indus water treaty in Pakistan.

7. Karez:

Karez is also an irrigation system which is adopted only in Baluchistan province. It is an underground-short canal system which is built to carry water at the foothill to the fields. Karez system is very popular in Pishin and Quetta districts.

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