CSS Essay Outlines : The Implications of Sectarian Militancy and Ethnic Violence in Muslim World
1.1) In modern age of global integrating politics, Muslim world is fast disintegrating on sectarian lines.
1.2) Sectarian decision has now exacerbated by taking ethnic and intra-sect forms posing direct treat to the stability of the Muslim and the wider world.
2. Identifying the causes of sectarian ethnic violence in Muslim world
2.1) Historical reasons
2.1.1) The 1400 years old conflict of Muslim Caliphates succession and continuous
subjugation of majority sects.
2.1.2) Continuous subjugation of minority sects at hands of majority sect/ethnic groups. 2.1.3) Breakup of Ottoman Empire after WWI paving way for minority sects and
suppressed ethnic groups to backlash against former rulers. 2.2) Modern day causes
2.2.1) Continuous tussle between KSA and Iran after Iranian revolution to claim Islamic
2.2.2) Growing number of sectarian/ethnic differences driven proxy wars.
2.2.3) West’s misinterpretation of Islam and with hidden players facilitating hate
mongering against opposing sects. 2.3) Foreign factors causes
2.3.1) Banned organization are recruiting young people to their folds to encourage violence world wide. i.e: IS recruits youth of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tunisia.
2.3.2) Youth get aspirations of sectarian violence due to blasphemy by minorities living in their country.
3. Global and regional implications of sectarian and ethnic violence in Muslim world
3.1) Browning militancy and spilling over of violence to wider world
3.1.1) Ever intensifying tussle between Iran and KSA resulting in increased number of proxy wars across the Muslim world (e.g. Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, Lebanon)
3.1.2) Increased funding of proxy war groups making these sectarian outfits stronger and eventually getting out of control.
3.1.3) Based on these funding and training, appearance of hard line local and transnational terrorist organizations (e.g. ISIS)
3.1.4) With increasing recruits of sectarian/ethnic outfits from western world, these battle- hardened fighters may return to their countries causing severe security complication
3.2) Destabilization of Muslim countries culminating in existential crisis
3.2.1) Muslim states unable to eradicate terrorist groups have substantial part of their territory owned by militant outfits (e.g. ISIS in Iraq)
3.2.2) Appearance of De facto states under militant leaderships confining Muslim countries writ to their capitals
3.2.3) Terrorist organizations taking control of strategically important and resourcefully rich areas of Muslim countries .
3.3) Humanitarian crisis and socio-economic plight in Muslim world.
3.3.1) Soaring numbers of refugees and IDPS across Muslim nations due to ongoing conflicts.
3.3.2) Humanitarian crisis as help and aid cannot reach affecters due to severe fighting in conflict zones.
3.3.3) Due to ethnic/sectarian conflicts major Muslim countries are unable to progress socio-economically and losing out fast to non-Muslim competitors
3.4) Failure of Muslim leadership to protect and promulgate the true peaceful ideology of Islam and oppression against Muslim community.
3.4.1) Sectarian and ethnic violence within Muslim world self-validates western accusations of Islam being an aggressive/violent religion.
3.4.2) Spreading of violence from sectarian/ethnic forms to intra-sect shades and violence against other religious minorities severely afflicting Islamic concept of peaceful co- existence
3.4.3) Sidelining of Important disputes of Muslim world such as Palestine and Indian
occupied Kashmir and failure to protect apprised Muslim communities globally such as in Myanmar.
3.4.4) Growing concept of intolerance and extremism in Muslim community.
4. Rising militancy due to international actors in Muslim world
4.1) Blacklisting of banned organizations of militancy by UN has sown the seeds of hatred which made militants more aggressive. i.e; UNSC resolution 1267 adopted unanimously to
4.2) Intervention of powerful states i.e: US and Russia in war torn countries have deteriorated the situation of poor Muslim countries by bringing R2P (responsibility to protect) agendas. i.e: Syrian refugee crisis as the second most crisis of the world after the WWII.
4.3) Hate speeches of anti-Islam promotes ill-will in militants. i.e: President-elect of US Donal J.Trump hatred speech against Muslims and Islamophobia.
5. Growing sectarian/ethnic in Pakistan and its impacts
5.1) Brief history of sectarian/ethnic violence in Pakistan
5.1.1) Strict sectarian legislations during Zia’s regime and the Iranian volition recordation initiated sectarian conflicts in Pakistan
5.1.2) Fast changing demographics in major cities, such as Karachi, formed the basis of ethnic violence that focused on power struggle.
5.2) Impacts of sectarian/ethnically motivated violence in Pakistan
5.2.1) Severe law and order situation as target violence against opposing camps increased. 5.2.2) Rise of hate speech/publications and growing sense of intolerance within Pakistani
5.2.3) Political confrontation of ethnicity based groups hampering major national developments and fuelling rising calls of new provinces.
5.2.4) Eventual targeting of non-Muslim minorities leaving them highly and marginalized. 5.2.5) Fast disintegrating sense of national unity among masses
5.3) Growing of sectarian/ethnic violence in Pakistan due to foreign factors
5.3.1) Exiled members of political parties to be involved in sectarian killings. i.e; Former PPP senator Faisal Raza Abidi arrested over Patel Para killings, Zardari ties with Karachi- based businessman Anwar Majeed who is booked under Anti-terrorism Act.
5.3.2) Indian Raw agent Kulbhushan Yadhav confessed to destabilize Pakistan and to promote sectarian killings (caught in 2016 in Pakistan)
6. Suggested remedies to cope with growing sectarian and ethnic violence in Muslim world.
6.1) Withdrawal of KSA and Iran from their overambitious quest to solely lead the Muslim world. 6.2) Immediate haling of financing of sectarian militant organizations.
6.3) Role of International community in mediating these conflicts to be ensured.
6.4) Socio-economic uplift of Muslim world through energy and economic cooperation.
6.5) Role of media and Muslim clerics in brining together opposing sects to points of commonality.
6.6) Widespread preaching of tolerance, co-existence and plurality of approach specially with regards to the vulnerable minorities.
6.7) Providing equal opportunities to all without any discrimination on sectarian/ethnic basis. 6.8) Making OIC operational, influential and effective
7.1) The only way to truly protect and promulgate Islamic Ideology while competing with west is to unite under the umbrella of Islam
7.2) Allowing sectarian/Ethnic violence to proceed unbridled would soon turn into a challenge for the entire global community.