Essay Outline: Culture of Corruption in Pakistan Its Impacts on Economy And Human Capital
1.1 Rampant culture of corruption in Pakistan is a scourge not only to the democratic institutions but also to the state of economy that hampers economic growth (i.e GDP) and human capital.
1.2 Historical overview of corruption in Pakistan
a) Practicing of corrupt policies by the exiled members of political parties. i.e: MQM movement led by Mr. Altaf Hussain gave extortion to his workers to undergo violence.
b) Rental power plant case, Hajj Scam are some of other examples
2. The rampant culture of corruption in Pakistan
2.1 Corruption prone institutions at national level
2.1.1 Pressure and fear on judiciary result in unjust practices and delayed justice. i.e;unlimited power exercised by feudal lords and political parties. Ex-PPP senator Faisal Raza Abidi acquitted on bail.
2.1.2 Improper accountability by fragile democratic institutions results in offshore
investments by the political parties. i.e; Panama leaks, Bahamas leaks, NAB plea bargaining on the case of former finance secretary of Balochistan – Mushtaq Ahmed Raisani.
2.1.3 Weak parliamentary decisions lead to provincial imbalances to undergo their duties.
2.2 Corruption prone institutions at individual level
2.2.1 Private working organizations contribute to corruption practices. i.e; Axact case
2.2.2 Religious partisanships undergo corrupt practices to gain their interests. i.e; Lal masjid and Haj corruption case.
2.2.3 Corrupt practices by feudal lords. i.e; Jirga and Panchayat systems in Pakistan.
3. Impacts on economy due to corruption
3.1 Impact on economic growth
3.1.1 Bribery acts impede firm performance and economic regulations in a country. i.e; Pakistan is under the debt of approx… Rs.22 trillion.
3.1.2 Depreciation in FDI (foreign direct investments) and imports/exports. i.e; Pakistan is the 67th largest export economy and ranks at 106th most complex economy.
3.1.3 Corruption affects GDP growth rate which leads to uneven distribution of wealth among individuals. i.e; Pakistan’s GDP rate is 4.7%in 2016.
3.2 Impact on human capital
3.2.1 Corruption impedes public expenditures in infrastructural developments. i.e; old buildings of hospitals, schools, universities may lead to catastrophe if not repaired.
3.2.2 Corruption impedes incentives given to workers in factories. i.e; Gadani ship-breaking industry is deprived of security and safety measures.
3.2.3 Curbing the expenses of governmental organizations lead to the privatization of companies. i.e; devastated situations of Pakistan Air Lines (PIA) and Pakistan Steel Mills (PSM).
5. Way Forward
5.1 Effective democratic institutions to root out corruption.
5.2 Spending money to provide incentives to workers which are the assets of economy.
5.3 Promoting national economy through economic developments to get rid of debts. i.e; CPEC, hydropower projects.