General Science & Ability Notes

Science and its Branches

Science and its Branches
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Science and its Branches

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Name of Branch Definition
What is science? A systematic study using observation, experiment, and measurement, of physical and social phenomena, or any specific area involving such a study is called Science

Science is knowledge, often as opposed to intuition, belief, etc. It is, in fact, systematized knowledge derived from observation, study and experimentation carried on in order to determine the nature or principles of what is being studied.

Acoustics The study of sound (or the science of sound).
Acrobatics The art of performing acrobatic feats (gymnastics).
Aerodynamics (i) The branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of air and other gases. (ii) The study of the motion and control of solid bodies like aircraft, missiles, etc., in air
Aeronautics  The Science or art of flight.
Aerostatics The branch of statics that deals with gases in equilibrium and with gases and bodies in them.
Aesthetics The philosophy of fine arts.
Aetiology The science of causation.
Agrobiology The science of plant life and plant nutrition.
Agronomics The science of managing land or crops.
Agronomy The science of soil management and the production of field crops.
Agrostology The study of grasses.
Alchemy Chemistry in ancient times.
Anatomy The science dealing with the structure of animals, plants or human body.
Anthropology The science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development of mankind.
Arboriculture Cultivation of trees and vegetables.
Archaeology The study of antiquities.
Astrology The ancient art of predicting the course of human destinies with the help of indications deduced from the position and movement of the heavenly bodies.
Astronautics The science of space travel.
Astronomy The study of the heavenly bodies.
Astrophysics The branch of astronomy concerned with the physical nature of heavenly bodies.
Bacteriology The study of bacteria.
Biochemistry The study of chemical processes of living things.
Biology The study of living things.
Biometry The application of mathematics to the study of living things.
Bionics The study of functions, characteristics and phenomena observed in the living world and the application of this knowledge to the world of machines.
Bionomics The study of the relation of an organism to its environments.
Bionomy The science of the laws of life.
Biophysics The physics of vital processes (living things).
Botany The study of plants.
Calisthenics The systematic exercises for attaining strength and gracefulness.
Cartography Science of Map Making.
Ceramics The art and technology of making objects from clay, etc. (Pottery).
Chemical engineering the application of science, mathematics, and economics to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms
Chemistry The study of elementary and their laws of combination and behaviour.
Chemotherapy The treatment of disease by using chemical substances.
Chronobiology The study of the duration of life.
Chronology The science of arranging time in periods and ascertaining the dates and historical order of past events.
Climatology the study of climates and investigations of its phenomena and causes
Computer science the systematic study of computing systems and computation
Conchology The branch of zoology dealing with the shells of mollusks.
Cosmogony The science of the nature of heavenly bodies.
Cosmography The science that describes and maps the main feature of the universe.
Cosmology The science of the nature, origin and history of the universe.
Criminology The study of crime and criminals.
Crytography The study of ciphers (secret writings).
Crystallography The study of the structure, forms and properties of crystals.
Crygenics The science dealing with the production, control and application of very low temperatures.
Cytochemistry The branch of cytology dealing with the chemistry of cells.
Cytogenetics The branch of biology dealing with the study of heredity from the point of view of cytology and genetics.
Cytology The study of cells, especially their formation, structure and functions.
Dactylography The study of fingerprints for the purpose of identification.
Dactyliology The technique of communication by signs made with the fingers. It is generally used by the deaf.
Ecology The study of the relation of animals and plants to their surroundings, animate and inanimate.
Econometrics The application of mathematics in testing economic theories.
Economics The science dealing with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
Electronics science and technology of electronic phenomena
Embryology The study of development of embryos.
Entomology The study of insects.
Engineering the practical application of science to commerce or industry
Entomology the study of insects
Environmental science the science of the interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment
Epidemiology The branch of medicine dealing with epidemic diseases.
Epigraphy The study of inscriptions.
Ethics Psychological study of moral principles.
Ethnography A branch of anthropology dealing with the scientific description of individual cultures.
Ethnology A branch of anthropology that deals with the origin, distribution and distinguishing characteristics of the races of mankind.
Ethology The study of animal behaviour.
Etymology The study of origin and history of words.
Eugenics The study of the production of better offspring by the careful selection of parents.
Forestry the science of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources
Genealogy The study of family ancestries and histories.
Genecology The study of genetical composition of plant population in relation to their habitats.
Genesiology The science of generation.
Genetics The branch of biology dealing with the phenomena of heredity and the laws governing it.
Geobiology The biology of terrestrial life.
Geobotany The branch of botany dealing with all aspects of relations between plants and the earth’s surface.
Geochemistry The study of the chemical composition of the earth’s crust and the changes which take place within it.
Geography The development of science of the earth’s surface, physical features, climate, population, etc.
Geology The science that deals with the physical history of the earth.
Geomedicine The branch of medicine dealing with the influence of climate and environmental conditions on health.
Geomorphology The study of the characteristics, origin and development of land forms.
Geophysics The physics of the earth.
Gerontology The study of old age, its phenomena, diseases, etc.
Heliothearpy The sun cure.
Histology The study of tissues.
Horticulture The cultivation of flowers, fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants.
Hydrodynamics The mathematical study of the forces, energy and pressure of liquid in motion.
Hydrography The science of water measurements of the earth with special reference of their use for navigation.
Hydrology The study of water with reference to its occurrence and properties in the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Hydrometallurgy The process of extracting metals at ordinary temperature by bleaching ore with liquids.
Hydropathy The treatment of disease by the internal and external use of water.
Hydroponics The cultivation of plants by placing the roots in liquid nutrient solutions rather than in soil.
Hydrostatics The mathematical study of forces and pressure in liquids.
Hygiene The science of health and its preservation.
Lconography Teaching with the aid of pictures and models.
Lconology The study of symbolic representations.
Jurisprudence The science of law.
Lexicography The writing or compiling of dictionaries.
Mammography Radiography of the mammary glands.
Marine biology the study of animal and plant life within saltwater ecosystems
Mathematics a science dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
Arithmetic The use of numbers for calculation. In arithmetic, mathematicians combine specific numbers (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) to produce a result.
Algebra Works in a similar way, but uses general expressions and allows for “variables” that are place holders in complex problem solving.
Geometry Describes objects and the spaces around them. In its simplest form, it deals with objects in two or three dimensions, such as lines, circles, cubes, and spheres. Geometry can be extended to cover abstractions, including objects in many dimensions.
Calculus Deals with continuously changing quantities, such as the position of a point on a curve or the area that the curve bounds. Among the advances that calculus helped develop were the determination of Newton’s laws of motion and the theory of electromagnetism.
Medicine the science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease
Metallography The study of the crystalline structures of metals and alloys.
Metallurgy The process of extracting metals from their ores.
Meteorology The science of the atmosphere and its phenomena.
Metrology The scientific study of weights and measures.
Microbiology The study of minute living organisms, including bacteria, molds and pathogenic protozoa.
Mineralogy the study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals
Moleccular biology The study of the structure of the molecules which are of importance in biology.
Morphology The science of organic forms and structures.
Mycology The study of fungi and fungus diseases.
Nuclear physics the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom
Neurology The study of the nervous system, its functions and its disorders.
Neuropathology The study of diseases of the nervous system.
Numerology The study of numbers.
Numismatics The study of coins and medals.
Oceanography study of the earth’s oceans and their interlinked ecosystems and chemical and physical processes
Odontography A description of the teeth.
Odontology The scientific study of the teeth.
Optics The study of nature and properties of light.
Organic chemistry the branch of chemistry dedicated to the study of the structures, synthesis, and reactions of carbon-containing compounds
Ornithology The study of birds.
Orthoepy The study of correct pronunciation.
Orthopedics The science of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases and abnormalities of musculoskeletal systems.
Osteology The study of the bones.
Osteopathology Any disease of bones.
Osteopathy A therapeutic system based upon detecting and correcting faulty structure.
Paleobotany The study of fossil plants.
Paleontology The study of fossils.
Palynology The pollen analysis.
Pathology The study of diseases.
Pedagogy The art or method of teaching.
Petrology The geological and chemical study of rocks
Pharyngology Study of pharynx and its diseases.
Phenology Study of periodicity phenomena of plants.
Philately The collection and study of postage stamps, revenue stamps, etc.
Philology The study of written records, their authenticity, etc.
Phonetics The study of speech sounds and the production, transmission, reception, etc.
Photobiology The branch of biology dealing with the effect of light on organisms.
Phenology The study of the faculties and qualities of minds from the shape of the skull.
Phthisiology The scientific study of tuberculosis.
Phycology The study of algae.
Physical science The study of natural laws and processes other than those peculiar to living matters, as in physics, chemistry and astronomy.
Physics The study of the properties of matter.
Physiography The science of physical geography.
Physiology The study of the functioning of the various organs of living beings.
Phytogeny Origin and growth of plants.
Pomology Study of fruits & fruit growing.
Psychology Study of human and animal behaviour.
Radio astronomy The study of heavenly bodies by the reception and analysis of the radio frequency electromagnetic radiations which they emit or reflect.
Radiobiology The branch of biology which deals with the effects of radiations on living organisms.
Radiology The study of X-rays and radioactivity.
Rheology The study of the deformation and flow of matter.
Seismology The study of earthquakes and the phenomena associated with it.
Selenology The scientific study of moon, its nature, origin, movements, etc.
Sericulture The raising of silk worms for the production of raw silk.
Sociology The study of human society.
Spectroscope The study of matter and energy by the use of spectroscope.
Teleology These study of the evidences of design or purpose in nature.
Telepathy Communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
Therapeutics The science and art of healing.
Thermodynamics the physics of energy, heat, work, entropy and the spontaneity of processes
Topography A special description of a part or region
Taxicology The study of poisons.
Virology The study of viruses.
Zoology The study of animal life.

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